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Glossary of Terms, Magnolia Press

Glossary of Terms

  A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z


A

Acid-free Paper

Paper made from pulp containing little or no acid so it resists deterioration from age. Also called alkaline paper, archival paper, neutral pH paper, permanent paper and thesis paper.

Alteration

Any change made by the customer after copy or artwork has been given to the printer. The change could be in copy, specifications or both. Also called AA, author alteration and customer alteration.

Aqueous Coating

Coating in a water base and applied like ink by a printing press to protect and enhance the printing underneath.

Artwork

All original copy, including type, photos and illustrations, intended for printing. Also called art.

Author's Alterations (AA's)

At the proofing stage, changes that the client requests to be made concerning original art provided. AA's are considered an additional cost to the client usually.


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B

Back Up

(1) To print on the second side of a sheet already printed on one side.
(2) To adjust an image on one side of a sheet so that it aligns back-to-back with an image on the other side.

Basis Weight

In the United States and Canada, the weight, in pounds, of a ream (500 sheets) of paper cut to the basic size. Also called ream weight and substance weight (sub weight). In countries using ISO paper sizes, the weight, in grams, of one square meter of paper. Also called grammage and ream weight.

Bind

Usually in the book arena, but not exclusively, the joining of leafs or signatures together with either wire, glue or other means.

Bindery

Usually a department within a printing company responsible for collating, folding and trimming various printing projects.

Blanket

Rubber-coated pad, mounted on a cylinder of an offset press, that receives the inked image from the plate and transfers it to the surface to be printed.

Bleed

Printing that extends to the edge of a sheet or page after trimming.

Blind Folio

A page number not printed on the page. (In the book arena, a blank page traditionally does not print a page number.)

Blow-Up

An enlargement, usually used with graphic images or photographs.

Blueline

Prepress photographic proof made from stripped negatives where all colors show as blue images on white paper. Because 'blueline' is a generic term for proofs made from a variety of materials having identical purposes and similar appearances, it may also be called a blackprint, blue, blueprint, brownline, brownprint, diazo, dyeline, ozalid, position proof, silverprint, Spinjet, Dylux and VanDyke.

Bond paper

Category of paper commonly used for writing, printing and photocopying. Also called business paper, communication paper, correspondence paper and writing paper.

Border

The decorative design or rule surrounding matter on a page.

Bristol Paper

General term referring to paper 6 points or thicker with basis weight between 90# and 200# (200-500 gsm). Used for products such as index cards, file folders and displays.

Broken Carton

Carton of paper from which some of the sheets have been sold.

Build a Color

To overlap two or more screen tints to create a new color. Such an overlap is called a build, color build, stacked screen build or tint build.

Bulk

Thickness of paper relative to its basic weight.

Bullet

A dot or similar marking to emphasize text.


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C

C1S and C2S

Abbreviations for coated one side and coated two sides.

Calender

To make the surface of paper smooth by pressing it between rollers during manufacturing.

Caliper

(1) Thickness of paper or other substrate expressed in thousandths of an inch (mils or points), pages per inch (ppi), thousandths of a millimeter (microns) or pages per centimeter (ppc).
(2) Device on a sheetfed press that detects double sheets or on a binding machine that detects missing signatures or inserts.

Camera-ready Copy

Mechanicals, photographs and art fully prepared for reproduction according to the technical requirements of the printing process being used. Also called finished art and reproduction copy.

Carbonless Paper

Paper coated with chemicals that enable transfer of images from one sheet to another with pressure from writing or typing.

Carload

Selling unit of paper that may weigh anywhere from 20,000 to 100,000 pounds (9,090 to 45, 454 kilos), depending on which mill or merchant uses the term. Abbreviated CL.

Carton

Selling unit of paper weighing approximately 150 pounds (60 kilos). A carton can contain anywhere from 500 to 5,000 sheets, depending on the size of sheets and their basis weight.

Case Bind

To bind using glue to hold signatures to a case made of binder board covered with fabric, plastic or leather. Also called cloth bind, edition bind, hard bind and hard cover.

Cast-coated Paper

High gloss, coated paper made by pressing the paper against a polished, hot, metal drum while the coating is still wet.

Choke

Technique of slightly reducing the size of an image to create a hairline trap or to outline. Also called shrink and skinny.

CMYK

Abbreviation for cyan, magenta, yellow and key (black), the four process colors.

Coarse Screen

Halftone screen with ruling of 65, 85 or 100 lines per inch (26, 34 or 40 lines centimeter).

Coated Paper

Paper with a coating of clay and other substances that improves reflectivity and ink holdout. Mills produce coated paper in the four major categories cast, gloss, dull and matte.

Collate

To organize printed matter in a specific order as requested.

Color

Color does so much for a design piece, yet it is so subjective. The light on the color, the substrate under the color and the eyes that see the color are all variables in viewing color. A graphic designer needs to address these variables as well as those that exist in reproducing color:

  • Photographic / Additive Color (RGB) Red, Green and Blue phosphers are what make up the colors on your tv screen and computer monitor. Red, Green and Blue dyes are used in photographic paper to yield fulll color photographs. Red, Green and Blue yield a beautiful range of color, but is expensive to print in large quantities.
  • 4 Color Process / Subtractive Color (CMYK) Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black are the 4 colored inks used to reproduce color photographs and images on press. They are also used in your color printer. It is a cost effective way to print full color, but does not reproduce as much of the spectrum as Red, Green and Blue.
  • Web Safe Color originally there were only 216 colors that could be successfully displayed over the web. HOWEVER as technology moves forward more and more browsers can display additional colors. The cast of those colors is determined by the monitor and system they appear on.
  • Pantone Matching System - Color matching system for inks devised by Pantone, Inc. to maintain color consistency in printed reproduction. Pantone colors can be used as a less expensive alternative to 4 color process. Pantone colored inks can also be used as a 5th and 6th color to maintain control and gain more latitude in process printing.

Color Control Bar

Strip of small blocks of color on a proof or press sheet to help evaluate features such as density and dot gain. Also called color bar, color guide and standard offset color bar.

Color Correct

To adjust the relationship among the process colors to achieve desirable colors.

Color Curves

Instructions in computer software that allow users to change or correct colors. Also called HLS and HVS tables.

Color Gamut

The entire range of hues possible to reproduce using a specific device, such as a computer screen, or system, such as four-color process printing.

Color Key

Brand name for an overlay color proof. Sometimes used as a generic term for any overlay color proof.

Color Shift

Change in image color resulting from changes in register, ink densities or dot gain during four-color process printing.

Commercial Printer

Printer producing a wide range of products such as announcements, brochures, posters, booklets, stationery, business forms, books and magazines. Also called job printer because each job is different.

Composite Proof

Proof of color separations in position with graphics and type. Also called final proof, imposition proof and stripping proof.

Composition

(1) In typography, the assembly of typographic elements, such as words and paragraphs, into pages ready for printing.
(2) In graphic design, the arrangement of type, graphics and other elements on the page.

Continuous-tone Copy

All photographs and those illustrations having a range of shades not made up of dots, as compared to line copy or halftones. Abbreviated contone.

Contrast

The degree of tones in an image ranging from highlight to shadow.

Converter

Business that makes products such as boxes, bags, envelopes and displays.

Copyboard

Surface or frame on a process camera that holds copy in position to be photographed.

Cover

Thick paper that protects a publication and advertises its title. Parts of covers are often described as follows: Cover 1=outside front; Cover 2=inside front; Cover 3=inside back, Cover 4=outside back.

Coverage

Extent to which ink covers the surface of a substrate. Ink coverage is usually expressed as light, medium or heavy.

Cover Paper

Category of thick paper used for products such as posters, menus, folders and covers of paperback books.

Creep

Phenomenon of middle pages of a folded signature extending slightly beyond outside pages. Also called feathering, outpush, push out and thrust. See also Shingling.

Crop Marks

Lines near the edges of an image indicating portions to be reproduced. Also called cut marks and tic marks.

Crossover

Type or art that continues from one page of a book or magazine across the gutter to the opposite page. Also called bridge, gutter bleed and gutter jump.

Cure

To dry inks, varnishes or other coatings after printing to ensure good adhesion and prevent setoff.

Customer Service Representative

Employee of a printer, or other business who coordinates projects and keeps customers informed. Abbreviated CSR.

Cut Sizes

Paper sizes used with office machines and small presses.

Cutting Machine

A machine that cuts stacks of paper to desired sizes. The machine can also be used in scoring or creasing.

Cutting Die

Usually a custom ordered item to trim specific and unusual sized printing projects.

CWT

Abbreviation for hundredweight using the Roman numeral C=100.

Cyan

One of the four process colors. Also known as process blue.


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D

Data Compression

Technique of reducing the amount of storage required to hold a digital file to reduce the disk space the file requires and allow it to be processed or transmitted more quickly.

Deboss

To press an image into paper so it lies below the surface.

Deckle Edge

Edge of paper left ragged as it comes from the papermaking machine instead of being cleanly cut. Also called feather edge.

Densitometer

Instrument used to measure density. Reflection densitometers measure light reflected from paper and other surfaces; transmission densitometers measure light transmitted through film and other materials.

Density

(1) Regarding ink, the relative thickness of a layer of printed ink.
(2) Regarding color, the relative ability of a color to absorb light reflected from it or block light passing through it.
(3) Regarding paper, the relative tightness or looseness of fibers.

Die

Device for cutting, scoring, stamping, embossing and debossing.

Die Cut

To cut irregular shapes in paper or paperboard using a die.

Digital Files

Files created, stored, transferred or processed on a computer.

Domain Name

The text name that brings you to the numeric IP address of a computer on the Internet. Domain Name Lookup is the process of converting a text name into a numeric IP address.

Digital Proofing

Page proofs produced through electronic memory transferred onto paper via laser or ink-jet.

Dot Gain

Phenomenon of halftone dots printing larger on paper than they are on films or plates, reducing detail and lowering contrast. Also called dot growth, dot spread and press gain.

Dots-per-inch

Measure of resolution of input devices such as scanners, display devices such as monitors, and output devices such as laser printers, imagesetters and monitors. Abbreviated DPI.

Double Bump

To print a single image twice so it has two layers of ink.

Doubling

Printing defect appearing as blurring or shadowing of the image. Doubling may be caused by problems with paper, cylinder alignment, blanket pressures or dirty cylinders.

DPI

Considered as "dots per square inch," a measure of output resolution in relationship to printers, imagesetters and monitors.

Drawdown

Sample of inks specified for a job applied to the substrate specified for a job. Also called pulldown.

Drill

In the printing arena, to drill a whole in a printed matter.

Dry Back

Phenomenon of printed ink colors becoming less dense as the ink dries.

Dry Trap

To print over dry ink, as compared to wet trap.

Dual-purpose Bond Paper

Bond paper suitable for printing by either lithography (offset) or xerography (photocopy). Abbreviated DP bond paper.

Dull Finish

Flat (not glossy) finish on coated paper; slightly smoother than matte. Also called suede finish, velour finish and velvet finish.

Dummy

Simulation of the final product. Also called mockup.

Duotone

Black-and-white photograph reproduced using two halftone negatives, each shot to emphasize different tonal values in the original.

Duplex Paper

Thick paper made by pasting highlights together two thinner sheets, usually of different colors. Also called double-faced paper and two-tone paper.

Duplicator

Offset press made for quick printing.

Dylux

Brand name for photographic paper used to make blue line proofs. Often used as alternate term for blueline.


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E

Emboss

To press an image into paper so it lies above the surface. Also called cameo and tool.

Emulsion Down/Emulsion Up

Film whose emulsion side faces down (away from the viewer) or up (toward the viewer) when ready to make a plate or stencil. Abbreviated ED, EU. Also called E up/down and face down/face up.

Encapsulated PostScript file

Computer file containing both images and PostScript commands. Abbreviated EPS file.

End Sheet

Sheet that attaches the inside pages of a case bound book to its cover. Also called pastedown or end papers.

EPS

Encapsulated Post Script, a known file format usually used to transfer post script information from one program to another.

Equivalent Paper

Paper that is not the brand specified, but looks, prints and may cost the same. Also called comparable stock.

Estimate

Price that states what a job will probably cost. Also called bid, quotation and tender.


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F

Face

Edge of a bound publication opposite the spine. Also called foredge. Also, an abbreviation for typeface referring to a family of a general style.

Felt Finish

Soft woven pattern in text paper.

Felt Side

Side of the paper that was not in contact with the Fourdrinier wire during papermaking, as compared to wire side.

Fifth Color

Ink color used in addition to the four needed by four-color process.

Film Laminate

Thin sheet of plastic bonded to a printed product for protection or increased gloss.

Finish

(1) Surface characteristics of paper.
(2) General term for trimming, folding, binding and all other post press operations.

Finished Size

Size of product after production is completed, as compared to flat size. Also called trimmed size.

Flat Size

Size of product after printing and trimming, but before folding, as compared to finished size.

Flood

To print a sheet completely with an ink or varnish. flooding with ink is also called painting the sheet.

Flush Cut

Cover trimmed to the same size as inside pages, as compared to overhang cover or edge seal as with film laminating. Leaf, at the front and back of a casebound book that is the one side of the end paper not glued to the case.

Foil Emboss

To foil stamp and emboss an image. Also called heat stamp.

Foil Stamp

Method of printing that releases foil from its backing when stamped with the heated die. Also called hot foil stamp and stamp.

Foldout

Gatefold sheet bound into a publication, often used for a map or chart. Also called gatefold and pullout.

Folio (page number)

The actual page number in a publication.

Format

Size, style, shape, layout or organization of a layout or printed product.

For Position Only

Refers to inexpensive copies of photos or art used on mechanical to indicate placement and scaling, but not intended for reproduction. Abbreviated FPO.

Four-color Process Printing

Technique of printing that uses black, magenta, cyan and yellow to simulate full-color images. Also called color process printing, full color printing and process printing.

Free Sheet

Paper made from cooked wood fibers mixed with chemicals and washed free of impurities, as compared to groundwood paper. Also called woodfree paper.

French Fold

A printed sheet, printed one side only, folded with two right angle folds to form a four page uncut section.


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G

Gang

To reproduce two or more different printed products simultaneously on one sheet of paper during one press run. Also called combination run.

Gate Fold

A sheet that folds where both sides fold toward the gutter in overlapping layers.

Ghosted Halftone

Normal halftone whose density has been reduced to produce a very faint image.

Ghosting

(1) Phenomenon of a faint image appearing on a printed sheet where it was not intended to appear. Chemical ghosting refers to the transfer of the faint image from the front of one sheet to the back of another sheet. Mechanical ghosting refers to the faint image appearing as a repeat of an image on the same side of the sheet.
(2) Phenomenon of printed image appearing too light because of ink starvation.

GIF (Graphics Interchange Format)

Graphic image file format used on the web, may be a static image or a simple animation.

Gilding

Mostly in the book arena, gold leafing the edges of a book.

Grade

General term used to distinguish between or among printing papers, but whose specific meaning depends on context. Grade can refer to the category, class, rating, finish or brand of paper.

Graduated Screen Tint

Screen tint that changes densities gradually and smoothly, not in distinct steps. Also called degrade, gradient, ramped screen and vignette.

Grain Direction

Predominant direction in which fibers in paper become aligned during manufacturing.

Grain Long Paper

Paper whose fibers run parallel to the long dimension of the sheet. Also called long grain paper.

Grain Short Paper

Paper whose fibers run parallel to the short dimension of the sheet. Also called short grain paper.

Graphic Arts

The crafts, industries and professions related to designing and printing on paper and other substrates.

Graphic Design

Arrangement of type and visual elements along with specifications for paper, ink colors and printing processes that, when combined, convey a visual message.

Gray Scale

Strip of gray values ranging from white to black.

Grind Edge

Alternate term for binding edge when referring to perfect bound products.

Grindoff

Approximately 1/8 inch (3 mm) along the spine that is ground off gathered signatures before perfect binding.

Gripper Edge

Edge of a sheet held by grippers on a sheetfed press, thus going first through the press. Also called feeding edge and leading edge.

Groundwood Paper

Newsprint and other inexpensive paper made from pulp created when wood chips are ground mechanically rather than refined chemically.

Gutter

In the book arena, the inside margins toward the back or the binding edges.


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H

Hairline (Rule)

Subjective term referring to very small space, thin line or close register. The meaning depends on who is using the term and in what circumstances.

Halftone

(1) To photograph or scan a continuous tone image to convert the image into halftone dots.
(2) A photograph or continuous-tone illustration that has been halftoned and appears on film, paper, printing plate or the final printed product.

Head(er)

At the top of a page, the margin.

Head-to-tail

Imposition with heads (tops) of pages facing tails (bottoms) of other pages.

Heat-set Web

Web press equipped with an oven to dry ink, thus able to print coated paper.

Hickey

Spot or imperfection in printing, most visible in areas of heavy ink coverage, caused by dirt on the plate or blanket.

Highlights

Lightest portions of a photograph or halftone, as compared to midtones and shadows.

House Sheet

Paper kept in stock by a printer and suitable for a variety of printing jobs. Also called floor sheet.

Hue

A specific color such as yellow or green.


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I

Image Area

The actual area on the printed matter that is not restricted to ink coverage.

Imagesetter

Laser output device using photosensitive paper or film.

Imposition

Arrangement of pages on mechanicals or flats so they will appear in proper sequence after press sheets are folded and bound.

Impression

(1) Referring to an ink color, one impression equals one press sheet passing once through a printing unit.
(2) Referring to speed of a press, one impression equals one press sheet passing once through the press.

Imprint

To print new copy on a previously printed sheet, such as imprinting an employee's name on business cards. Also called surprint.

Ink Holdout

Characteristic of paper that prevents it from absorbing ink, thus allowing ink to dry on the surface of the paper. Also called holdout.

Inserts

Within a publication, an additional item positioned into the publication loose (not bound in).

ISBN

A number assigned to a published work and usually found either on the title page or the back of the title page. Considered an International Standard Book Number.


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J

JPEG (Joint Photographic Expert Group)

Generally a photographic or tonal image in digital format, viewable on any platform.

Job Lot Paper

Paper that didn't meet specifications when produced, has been discontinued, or for other reasons is no longer considered first quality.


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K

Keylines

Lines on a mechanical or negative showing the exact size, shape and location of photographs or other graphic elements. Also called holding lines.

Kiss Die Cut

To die cut the top layer, but not the backing layer, of self-adhesive paper. Also called face cut.

Kraft Paper

Strong paper used for wrapping and to make grocery bags and large envelopes.


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L

Laid Finish

Finish on bond or text paper on which grids of parallel lines simulate the surface of handmade paper. Laid lines are close together and run against the grain; chain lines are farther apart and run with the grain.

Laminate

A thin transparent plastic sheet (coating) applied to usually a thick stock (covers, post cards, etc.) providing protection against liquid and heavy use, and usually accents existing color, providing a dull or glossy effect.

Landscape

Artist style in which width is greater than height. (Portrait is opposite.)

Lay Flat Bind

Method of perfect binding that allows a publication to lie fully open. (Also known as Lay Flat Perfect Binding.)

Layout

A sample of the original providing (showing) position of printed work (direction, instructions) needed and desired.

Leading

Amount of space between lines of type.

Leaf

One sheet of paper in a publication. Each side of a leaf is one page.

Letter fold

Two folds creating three panels that allow a sheet of letterhead to fit a business envelope. Also called barrel fold and wrap around fold.

Letter Paper

In North America, 8 1/2' x 11' sheets. In Europe, A4 sheets.

Lignin

Substance in trees that holds cellulose fibers together. Free sheet has most lignin removed; groundwood paper contains lignin.

Line Copy

Any high-contrast image, including type, as compared to continuous-tone copy. Also called line art and line work.

Linen Finish

Embossed finish on text paper that simulates the pattern of linen cloth.

Live Area

Area on a mechanical within which images will print. Also called safe area.

Loupe

Lens built into a small stand. Used to inspect copy, film, proofs, plates and printing. Also called glass and linen tester.


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M

Magenta

One of the four process colors.

Makeready

(1) All activities required to prepare a press or other machine to function for a specific printing or bindery job, as compared to production run. Also called setup.
(2) Paper used in the makeready process at any stage in production. Makeready paper is part of waste or spoilage.

Making Order

Order for paper that a mill makes to the customer's specifications, as compared to a mill order or stock order.

Margin

Imprinted space around the edge of the printed material.

Match Print

A form of a four-color-process proofing system.

Matte Finish

Flat (not glossy) finish on photographic paper or coated printing paper.

Metallic Ink

Ink containing powdered metal or pigments that simulate metal.

Midtones

In a photograph or illustration, tones created by dots between 30 percent and 70 percent of coverage, as compared to highlights and shadows.

Mil 1/1000 Inch

The thickness of plastic films as printing substrates are expressed in mils.

Mock Up

A reproduction of the original printed matter and possibly containing instructions or direction.

Moire

Undesirable pattern resulting when halftones and screen tints are made with improperly aligned screens, or when a pattern in a photo, such as a plaid, interfaces with a halftone dot pattern.

Monarch

Paper size (7' x 10') and envelope shape often used for personal stationery.

Mottle

Spotty, uneven ink absorption. Also called sinkage. A mottled image may be called mealy.

Multicolor Printing

Printing in more than one ink color (but not four-color process). Also called polychrome printing.

M Weight

Weight of 1,000 sheets of paper in any specific size.


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N

Nested

Signatures assembled inside one another in the proper sequence for binding, as compared to gathered. Also called inset.

Nonheatset Web

Web press without a drying oven, thus not able to print on coated paper. Also called cold-set web and open web.


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O

Offset Printing

Printing technique that transfers ink from a plate to a blanket to paper instead of directly from plate to paper.

Opacity

(1) Characteristic of paper or other substrate that prevents printing on one side from showing through the other side.
(2) Characteristic of ink that prevents the substrate from showing through.

Onion Skin

A specific lightweight type (kind) of paper usually used in the past for air mail. Seldom used today (in the typewriter era).

Opaque

(1) Not transparent.
(2) To cover flaws in negative with tape or opaquing paint. Also called block out and spot.

Outline Halftone

Halftone in which background has been removed or replaced to isolate or silhouette the main image. Also called knockout halftone and silhouette halftone.

Over Run

Additional printed matter beyond order. Overage policy varies in the printing industry. Advance questions avoid blind knowledge.


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P

Page

One side of a leaf in a publication.

Pagination

In the book arena, the numbering of pages.

Painted Sheet

Sheet printed with ink edge to edge, as compared to spot color. The painted sheet refers to the final product, not the press sheet, and means that 100 percent coverage results from bleeds off all four sides.

Panel

One page of a brochure, such as one panel of a rack brochure. One panel is on one side of the paper. A letter-folded sheet has six panels, not three.

Parallel Fold

Method of folding. Two parallel folds to a sheet will produce 6 panels.

PDF (Portable Document Format)

An electronic image that preserves all the original graphic elements of a printed document - including fonts. You can view, navigate, print, or forward pdf documents electronically without compromising the original design. PDF files are perfect for the Web because the document doesn't change from platform to platform and the text is rendered before graphic images and hypertext links -yielding faster download times. Links, forms and navigation aids can be added to pdf files making them more interactive. Their small file size and simplicity also make them the perfect choice for e-mailing proofs or finished documents as well as for delivering documentation on a CD.

PE

Proofreader mark meaning printer error and showing a mistake by a typesetter, prepress service or printer as compared to an error by the customer.

Perfect Bind

To bind sheets that have been ground at the spine and are held to the cover by glue. Also called adhesive bind, cut-back bind, glue bind, paper bind, patent bind, perfecting bind, soft bind and soft cover.

Perfecting Press

Press capable of printing both sides of the paper during a single pass. Also called duplex press and perfector.

Perforating

Taking place on a press or a binder machine, creating a line of small dotted wholes for the purpose of tearing-off a part of a printed matter (usually straight lines, vertical or horizontal).

Pica

A unit of measure in the printing industry. A pica is approximately 0.166 in. There are 12 points to a pica.

Picking

Phenomenon of ink pulling bits of coating or fiber away from the surface of paper as it travels through the press, thus leaving unprinted spots in the image area.

Pickup Art

Artwork, used in a previous job, to be incorporated in a current job.

Plate

Piece of paper, metal, plastic or rubber carrying an image to be reproduced using a printing press.

Platform

The computer operating system (i.e. Windows NT, Mac OS X etc.) and its associated hardware.

Pleasing Color

Color that the customer considers satisfactory even though it may not precisely match original samples, scenes or objects.

PMS

Obsolete reference to Pantone Matching System. The correct trade name of the colors in the Pantone Matching System is Pantone colors, not PMS Colors.

Point

(1) Regarding paper, a unit of thickness equating 1/1000 inch.
(2) Regarding type, a unit of measure equaling 1/12 pica and .013875 inch (.351mm).

Postscript

Postscript is a page description language that translates text and graphic images into instructions for the printer. Postscript developed by Adobe Systems, Inc. was a major turning point in computer imaging. Not to be confused with encapsulated postscript.

Prepress

Camera work, color separations, stripping, platemaking and other prepress functions performed by the printer, prior to printing.

Prepress Proof

Any color proof made using ink jet, toner, dyes or overlays, as compared to a press proof printed using ink. Also called dry proof and off-press proof.

Preprint

To print portions of sheets that will be used for later imprinting.

Press Check

Event at which makeready sheets from the press are examined before authorizing full production to begin.

Press Proof

Proof made on press using the plates, ink and paper specified for the job. Also called strike off and trial proof.

Printer Spreads

Mechanicals made so they are imposed for printing, as compared to reader spreads.

Printing

Any process that transfers to paper or another substrate an image from an original such as a film negative or positive, electronic memory, stencil, die or plate.

Printing Plate

Surface carrying an image to be printed. Quick printing uses paper or plastic plates; letterpress, engraving and commercial lithography use metal plates; flexography uses rubber or soft plastic plates. Gravure printing uses a cylinder. The screen printing is also called a plate.

Process Color (Inks)

The colors used for four-color process printing: yellow, magenta, cyan and black.

Proof

Test sheet made to reveal errors or flaws, predict results on press and record how a printing job is intended to appear when finished.

Protocol

Protocal is an established method of exchanging data over the Internet (i.e. ftp, http).


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Q

Quality

Subjective term relating to expectations by the customer, printer and other professionals associated with a printing job and whether the job meets those expectations.

Quotation

Price offered by a printer to produce a specific job.


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R

Raster Graphics

Graphic file made up of tiny dots called pixels. A larger number of pixels in an image yields a higher resolution. Tiff, jpeg and bmp images are raster graphics.

Reader Spread

Mechanicals made in two page spreads as readers would see the pages, as compared to printer spread.

Ream

500 sheets of paper.

Recycled Paper

New paper made entirely or in part from old paper.

Register

To place printing properly with regard to the edges of paper and other printing on the same sheet. Such printing is said to be in register.

Register Marks

Cross-hair lines on mechanicals and film that help keep flats, plates, and printing in register. Also called crossmarks and position marks.

Resolution

Sharpness of an image on film, paper, computer screen, disc, tape or other medium. Resolution determines the quality of the image. A computer image's resolution is measured in dpi (dots per inch). The resoluion of traditional film for print is measured in lines per inch or line screen. A 150 line screen is equivalent to 300 dpi.

Reverse

Type, graphic or illustration reproduced by printing ink around its outline, thus allowing the underlying color or paper to show through and form the image. The image 'reverses out' of the ink color. Also called knockout.

RGB

Abbreviation for red, green, blue, the additive color primaries as used in web design and tv.


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S

Saddle Stitch

To bind by stapling sheets together where they fold at the spine, as compared to side stitch. Also called pamphlet stitch, saddle wire and stitch bind.

Safety

Safety is at least 1/8" from the final trim size. Don't place any critical images or text beyond the safety to avoid it from getting cut off when the finished piece is trimmed.

Satin Finish

Alternate term for dull finish on coated paper.

Score

To compress paper along a straight line so it folds more easily and accurately. Also called crease.

Screen Angles

Angles at which screens intersect with the horizontal line of the press sheet. The common screen angles for separations are black 45 degree, magenta 75 degree, yellow 90 degree and cyan 105 degree.

Screen Density

Refers to the percentage of ink coverage that a screen tint allows to print. Also called screen percentage.

Screen Printing

Method of printing by using a squeegee to force ink through an assembly of mesh fabric and a stencil.

Screen Tint

Color created by dots instead of solid ink coverage. Also called Benday, fill pattern, screen tone, shading, tint and tone.

Self Cover

Usually in the book arena, a publication not having a cover stock. A publication only using text stock throughout.

Self Mailer

A printed item independent of an envelope. A printed item capable of travel in the mailing arena independently.

Shade

Hue made darker by the addition of black, as compared to tint.

Shadows

Darkest areas of a photograph or illustration, as compared to midtones and high-lights.

Sheetfed Press

Press that prints sheets of paper, as compared to a web press that prints from rolls of paper.

Sheetwise

Technique of printing one side of a sheet with one set of plates, then the other side of the sheet with a set of different plates.

Shingling

Allowance, made during paste-up or stripping, to compensate for creep. Creep is the problem; shingling is the solution. Also called stair stepping and progressive margins.

Side stitch

To bind by stapling through sheets along, one edge, as compared to saddle stitch. Also called side wire.

Signature

Printed sheet folded at least once, possibly many times, to become part of a book, magazine or other publication.

Slip Sheets

Separate sheets (stock) independent from the original run positioned between the "printed run" for a variety of reasons.

Solid

Any area of the sheet receiving 100 percent ink coverage, as compared to a screen tint.

Specifications

Complete and precise written description of features of a printing job such as type size and leading, paper grade and quantity, printing or binding method. Abbreviated specs.

Spine

Back or binding edge of a publication.

Spiral Bind

To bind using a spiral of continuous wire or plastic looped through holes. Also called coil bind.

Split Run

(1) Different images, such as advertisements, printed in different editions of a publication.
(2) Printing of a book that has some copies bound one way and other copies bound another way.

Spoilage

Paper that, due to set up, mistakes or accidents, must be thrown away instead of delivered printed to the customer, as compared to waste.

Spot Color or Varnish

One ink or varnish applied to portions of a sheet, as compared to flood or painted sheet.

Spread

(1) Two pages that face each other and are designed as one visual or production unit.
(2) Technique of slightly enlarging the size of an image to accomplish a hairline trap with another image.

Stocking Paper

Popular sizes, weights and colors of papers available for prompt delivery from a merchant's warehouse.

Substrate

Any surface or material on which printing is done.

Supercalendered Paper

Paper calendered using alternating chrome and fiber rollers to produce a smooth, thin sheet.

Surprint

Taking an already printed matter and re-printing again on the same.


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T

Tabloid

Using a broadsheet as a measure, one half of a broadsheet.

Template

Concerning a printing project's basic details in regard to its dimensions. A standard layout.

Text Paper

Designation for printing papers with textured surfaces such as laid or linen. Some mills also use 'text' to refer to any paper they consider top-of-the-line, whether or not its surface has a texture.

Thermography

Method of printing using colorless resin powder that takes on the color of underlying ink. Also called raised printing.

Thumbnails

Initial ideas jotted on virtually anything in regard to initial concept of a future project.

TIFF (Tag Image File Format)

File format used to store large non-compressed image files, generally used for high resolution print.

Tint

Screening or adding white to a solid color for results of lightening that specific color.

Tip In

Usually in the book arena, adding an additional page(s) beyond the normal process (separate insertion).

Touch Plate

Plate that accents or prints a color that four-color process printing cannot reproduce well enough or at all. Also called kiss plate.

Trade Shop

Service bureau, printer or bindery working primarily for other graphic arts professionals, not for the general public.

Trim Size

The size of the printed material in its finished stage (e.g., the finished trim size is 5 1\2 x 8 1\2).


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U

Uncoated Paper

Paper that has not been coated with clay. Also called offset paper.

Undercolor Removal

Technique of making color separations such that the amount of cyan, magenta and yellow ink is reduced in midtone and shadow areas while the amount of black is increased. Abbreviated UCR.

UV Coating

Liquid applied to a printed sheet, then bonded and cured with ultraviolet light.


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V

Value

The shade (darkness) or tint (lightness) of a color. Also called brightness, lightness, shade and tone.

Varnish

Liquid applied as a coating for protection and appearance.

Vector Graphics

A mathematical means of representing pictures by drawing lines and shapes in relationship to designated coordinates. The saved file contains instructions for drawing the image, which can be enlarged or reduced without losing quality. Eps, svg and dxf files are examples of vector graphics.

Vellum Finish

Somewhat rough, toothy finish.

Vignette

Decorative design or illustration fade to white.

Virgin Paper

Paper made exclusively of pulp from trees or cotton, as compared to recycled paper.


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W

Wash Up

To clean ink and fountain solutions from rollers, fountains, screens, and other press components.

Waste

Unusable paper or paper damage during normal makeready, printing or binding operations, as compared to spoilage.

Watermark

Translucent logo in paper created during manufacturing by slight embossing from a dandy roll while paper is still approximately 90 percent water.

Web Press

Press that prints from rolls of paper, usually cutting it into sheets after printing. Also called reel-fed press. Web presses come in many sizes, the most common being mini, half, three quarter (also called 8-pages) and full (also called 16-pages).

Wet Trap

To print ink or varnish over wet ink, as compared to dry trap.

Wire Side

Side of the paper that rests against The Fourdrinier wire during papermaking, as compared to felt side.

Wove

Paper manufactured without visible wire marks, usually a fine textured paper.


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X

X-Height

The height of a letter excluding the ascenders and descenders; eg 'x', which is also height of the main body.

Xerography

A photocopying/printing process in which the image is formed using the electrostatic charge principle. The toner replaces ink and can be dry or liquid. Once formed, the image is sealed by heat. Most page printers currently use this method of printing.


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Y

Yankee dryer

A device that dries as it comes off the wet end of the paper making machine by pressing one side of the paper against a cylinder that seam-heats it and imparts a glazed finish at the same time.

Yellow

One of the three subtractive primary colors used in process printing.

Yield Value

The actual amount of force needed to start an ink flowing.


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Z

Z-Fold Brochure

A z-fold brochure—also known as a fan fold or zig zag fold brochure—is constructed by folding an 8.5” x 11”, 8.5” x 14”, 11” x 17” or 11” x 25.5” sheet of paper twice in the shape of the letter “Z”.
A z-fold brochure looks like a fan because the panels do not fold into one another.

Z-Fold Brochure Panels & Pages

Panels are two-sided sections of the final printed brochure, and a z-fold brochure has three panels.
A page is one side of a brochure panel, and a z-fold brochure has six pages.
For z-fold brochures, the outside left panel folds to the left and the inside right panel folds to the left, forming the brochure cover.

Zip Code Sorting

Presorting mail, other than first class, into zip code sequence prior to delivery to the post office. The extent of the sortint is dependent upon the class of the mail and other postal regulations.

Zoom

An electronic function that increases or reduces the magnification of the image displayed on the video screen.

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