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Glossary of Terms, Magnolia Press

Glossary of Terms - C

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C1S and C2S

Abbreviations for coated one side and coated two sides.

Calender

To make the surface of paper smooth by pressing it between rollers during manufacturing.

Caliper

(1) Thickness of paper or other substrate expressed in thousandths of an inch (mils or points), pages per inch (ppi), thousandths of a millimeter (microns) or pages per centimeter (ppc).
(2) Device on a sheetfed press that detects double sheets or on a binding machine that detects missing signatures or inserts.

Camera-ready Copy

Mechanicals, photographs and art fully prepared for reproduction according to the technical requirements of the printing process being used. Also called finished art and reproduction copy.

Carbonless Paper

Paper coated with chemicals that enable transfer of images from one sheet to another with pressure from writing or typing.

Carload

Selling unit of paper that may weigh anywhere from 20,000 to 100,000 pounds (9,090 to 45, 454 kilos), depending on which mill or merchant uses the term. Abbreviated CL.

Carton

Selling unit of paper weighing approximately 150 pounds (60 kilos). A carton can contain anywhere from 500 to 5,000 sheets, depending on the size of sheets and their basis weight.

Case Bind

To bind using glue to hold signatures to a case made of binder board covered with fabric, plastic or leather. Also called cloth bind, edition bind, hard bind and hard cover.

Cast-coated Paper

High gloss, coated paper made by pressing the paper against a polished, hot, metal drum while the coating is still wet.

Choke

Technique of slightly reducing the size of an image to create a hairline trap or to outline. Also called shrink and skinny.

CMYK

Abbreviation for cyan, magenta, yellow and key (black), the four process colors.

Coarse Screen

Halftone screen with ruling of 65, 85 or 100 lines per inch (26, 34 or 40 lines centimeter).

Coated Paper

Paper with a coating of clay and other substances that improves reflectivity and ink holdout. Mills produce coated paper in the four major categories cast, gloss, dull and matte.

Collate

To organize printed matter in a specific order as requested.

Color

Color does so much for a design piece, yet it is so subjective. The light on the color, the substrate under the color and the eyes that see the color are all variables in viewing color. A graphic designer needs to address these variables as well as those that exist in reproducing color:

  • Photographic / Additive Color (RGB) Red, Green and Blue phosphers are what make up the colors on your tv screen and computer monitor. Red, Green and Blue dyes are used in photographic paper to yield fulll color photographs. Red, Green and Blue yield a beautiful range of color, but is expensive to print in large quantities.
  • 4 Color Process / Subtractive Color (CMYK) Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black are the 4 colored inks used to reproduce color photographs and images on press. They are also used in your color printer. It is a cost effective way to print full color, but does not reproduce as much of the spectrum as Red, Green and Blue.
  • Web Safe Color originally there were only 216 colors that could be successfully displayed over the web. HOWEVER as technology moves forward more and more browsers can display additional colors. The cast of those colors is determined by the monitor and system they appear on.
  • Pantone Matching System - Color matching system for inks devised by Pantone, Inc. to maintain color consistency in printed reproduction. Pantone colors can be used as a less expensive alternative to 4 color process. Pantone colored inks can also be used as a 5th and 6th color to maintain control and gain more latitude in process printing.

Color Control Bar

Strip of small blocks of color on a proof or press sheet to help evaluate features such as density and dot gain. Also called color bar, color guide and standard offset color bar.

Color Correct

To adjust the relationship among the process colors to achieve desirable colors.

Color Curves

Instructions in computer software that allow users to change or correct colors. Also called HLS and HVS tables.

Color Gamut

The entire range of hues possible to reproduce using a specific device, such as a computer screen, or system, such as four-color process printing.

Color Key

Brand name for an overlay color proof. Sometimes used as a generic term for any overlay color proof.

Color Shift

Change in image color resulting from changes in register, ink densities or dot gain during four-color process printing.

Commercial Printer

Printer producing a wide range of products such as announcements, brochures, posters, booklets, stationery, business forms, books and magazines. Also called job printer because each job is different.

Composite Proof

Proof of color separations in position with graphics and type. Also called final proof, imposition proof and stripping proof.

Composition

(1) In typography, the assembly of typographic elements, such as words and paragraphs, into pages ready for printing.
(2) In graphic design, the arrangement of type, graphics and other elements on the page.

Continuous-tone Copy

All photographs and those illustrations having a range of shades not made up of dots, as compared to line copy or halftones. Abbreviated contone.

Contrast

The degree of tones in an image ranging from highlight to shadow.

Converter

Business that makes products such as boxes, bags, envelopes and displays.

Copyboard

Surface or frame on a process camera that holds copy in position to be photographed.

Cover

Thick paper that protects a publication and advertises its title. Parts of covers are often described as follows: Cover 1=outside front; Cover 2=inside front; Cover 3=inside back, Cover 4=outside back.

Coverage

Extent to which ink covers the surface of a substrate. Ink coverage is usually expressed as light, medium or heavy.

Cover Paper

Category of thick paper used for products such as posters, menus, folders and covers of paperback books.

Creep

Phenomenon of middle pages of a folded signature extending slightly beyond outside pages. Also called feathering, outpush, push out and thrust. See also Shingling.

Crop Marks

Lines near the edges of an image indicating portions to be reproduced. Also called cut marks and tic marks.

Crossover

Type or art that continues from one page of a book or magazine across the gutter to the opposite page. Also called bridge, gutter bleed and gutter jump.

Cure

To dry inks, varnishes or other coatings after printing to ensure good adhesion and prevent setoff.

Customer Service Representative

Employee of a printer, or other business who coordinates projects and keeps customers informed. Abbreviated CSR.

Cut Sizes

Paper sizes used with office machines and small presses.

Cutting Machine

A machine that cuts stacks of paper to desired sizes. The machine can also be used in scoring or creasing.

Cutting Die

Usually a custom ordered item to trim specific and unusual sized printing projects.

CWT

Abbreviation for hundredweight using the Roman numeral C=100.

Cyan

One of the four process colors. Also known as process blue.

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